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Glossary of Terms

Brian Austin
Brian Austin Blockchain

Below, we start off with a basic glossary of terms. However, since this glossary was created, more new, important, and relevant definitions have come into existence. So we'll be updating this glossary to reflect current times. Check back, or let us know what you would like to see defined more clearly. Thank you.

Advertising (contrast with Marketing)

Explores how to let potential customers know that you exist as a business and what you can do for them.

ASCII

American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII), is a method used in computing and on the web to encode characters based on the English alphabet.

Atom

In a web syndication context, Atom relates to a pair of related standards. The Atom Syndication Format is an XML language used for web feeds, while the Atom Publishing Protocol (APP for short) is a simple HTTP-based protocol for creating and updating Web resources. However, the most popular syndication format more recently is RSS (Really Simple Syndication). Today, RSS has largely been replaced by, and absorbed into, social media channels.

Bandwidth

In relation to the Internet and the Web, bandwidth refers to the amount of information or data that can be moved across computers. Bandwidth is usually measured in Kilobytes (Kb), Megabytes (Mb) or Gigabytes (Gb). Bandwidth capacity can be compared to the width of a pipe; a wider pipe can carry more bandwidth than a narrower pipe. So an Internet connection speed of 8Mb can carry more bandwidth than a connection speed of 0.5Mb.

Bitcoin

Essentially a digital or electronic currency, also referred to as a cryptocurrency, and / or a store of value that only exists in electronic form, accessed through various kinds of digital screens.

Bitcoins can be used to buy products and services, and can be bought and sold as standalone investments or speculations. At any time, the current price, value, or worth of Bitcoin can go up or down. Though over time, the value of each Bitcoin is expected to rise.

Using easily available, standard electronic devices and software, anyone can perform transparent, verifiable, timestamped, and tamper-proof transactions without the need for any third parties, such as banks.

Bitcoins are created using powerful computer software under the control of special rules called a protocol. All Bitcoin transactions are completed between computer to computer without the use of middlemen. The current Bitcoin protocol can only allow 21 million coins to ever be produced, ensuring that Bitcoins are inflation-proof.

However, a Bitcoin (BTC) can be divided into tiny chunks or values, down the smallest value - a Satoshi. A Satoshi is equal to one hundred millionth of a single bitcoin (0.00000001 BTC).

Two huge benefits of Bitcoin include: (1) the ability to build a secure store of value, plus (2) provide a remarkable way to move that value around the world using peer-to-peer methods.

In time, Bitcoin may or may not become a mainstream digital currency used alongside dollars, pounds, yen, renminbi, etc. Though later, perhaps a universal blockchain-based digitial world currency may emerge as a form of standard globally accepted money. 

Blockchain

A blockchain exists only inside computer software in the form of an incorruptable, digital ledger database shared across multiple computing devices that holds a permanent record of transactions.

Using the Internet, blockchains allow value for almost any resource, not just financial records, to be transferred securely from one party to another.

To-date, blockchains have been used to transfer money (Bitcoin, Ethereum, etc), stocks and shares, property deeds, digital royalties, digital tokens, voting records for elections, and so on.  

Different kinds of blockchain exist, including public (open to all to check) blockchains and private (controlled access) blockchains. 

Once each new entry is added to the blockchain, the entry cannot be removed, changed, or deleted.

Blockchain technologies, along with cryptocurrencies, artificial intelligence, robotics, and the "Internet-of-Things" sensor technologies, are poised to change the fabric of the entire world.

Blog

A web log or online diary or journal that allows the author to share their opinion on one or more topics with visitors or subscribers in a conversational manner. Often, user commentary is also made available and most blogs can include images, videos, audio (podcasting) and links, in addition to text. People who create, use or contribute a blog are blogging and are referred to as bloggers.

BMWR

In a web business context, your BMWR is an acronym for your Backup Most Wanted Response. When a visitor first visits your website, your number 1 goal is to have them take your Most Wanted Response (MWR). However, if that fails, you need a Plan B - your Backup Most Wanted Response (BMWR).

If your MWR is to have your visitor register, your BMWR could be to have them sign up for a free email newsletter. This gives you a second chance to use permission marketing in order to build up a relationship of trust with your visitor. Contrast with MWR.

CAPTCHA

A method that helps distinguish actions taken by computers from humans, to prevent computer programs that are used to automatically register on a website. CAPTCHA achieves this goal by generating an image of letters and / or number that can only be detected by humans.

CAPTCHA is an acronym for "Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart". You can see an example of CAPTCHA on this website as part of our user commenting system.

Older CAPTCHA systems can be bypassed by scammers and spammers. That's why Google recently developed their remarkable ReCaptcha v2. So far, the Google Version 2 looks to be remarkably effective at helping protect web forms.

CMS

A web Content Management System (CMS) provides a quick and easy way to create, save and edit web pages that are delivered instantly "on the fly" to a website (web server). The content pages that make up a CMS-powered website are stored in a database on a web server. InternetTIPS.com uses the Joomla CMS.

Contrarian

An idea or person who supports a view that goes against the popular flow. Or that which proposes another route or path toward an objective or destination.

CRM

In a business context, CRM - or Customer Relationship Management - is a method of managing and combining every IT aspect that relates to customers and clients of the business, including marketing, sales, accounts receivable and invoicing.

CSS

Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a method of providing a set of formatting rules that can be interpreted by web browsers - and other compatible software - to style and display web pages. Recommended by the W3C, CSS can be used to help keep web page content separate from web page design. CSS-designed XHTML websites - like InternetTIPS.com - are usually more search engine friendly and can load fast than the older HTML web designs.

Ether (ETH)

The software "fuel" or digital currency exercised as a form of payment used by computers that power smart contract transactions on the Ethereum public blockchain.

Ethereum

A decentralized blockchain platform open to anyone that allows for digital transactions to be made programmable to meet almost any requirement.

Transactions carried out on Ethereum can be referred to as smart contracts, that are performed computer to computer using a cryptocurrency called Ether (ETH).

FAAMNG

An acronym to cover "the Big Six" large tech companies: Facebook, Apple, Amazon, Microsoft, Netflix, and Google.

FAANG

An acronym that provides a convenient, handy way to refer to five of the currently largest companies or influences online (on July 2018): Facebook, Apple, Amazon, Netflix, and Google.

FaaS

Today, software and services can combine to create remarkable solutions. So the acronym FaaS refers to some code in software that serves a purpose as a service and returns a value once the small code module has fulfilled its requested role.

FANG

Another handy acronym for referring to Facebook, Amazon, Netflix and Google, when considered as a group.

FAMGA

Yet another convenient ancronym that stands as a useful reference when referring to Facebook, Apple, Microsoft, Google, and Amazon as a powerful group of influental online sources.

FinTech

Financial Technology. Refers to the wide ranging and seemingly ever increasing choices of technology solutions used in financial institutions or applications.

FTP

FTP (File Transfer Protocol) is a method used to transfer files from one computer to another. As website providers, we use FTP most commonly to more quickly upload multiple website files to our website hosting provider using software programs like CuteFTP or WISE-FTP.

Using an FTP program can often save a considerable amount of time if you have a lot of files and folders to upload or download.

Today, more secure FTP versions are preferable and available including Secure FTP (SFTP), FTP Secure (FTPS), that uses Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), and WebDAV.  

As a website provider, if you use a web content management system like WordPress, Joomla, or Drupal, understanding the basics of using FTP is especially important.

However, with the invention and application of newer, smarter, more user friendly software designs becoming more prevalent, may mean FTP requirements diminish.

FUDster

An individual or organization that spreads Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt. Probably most people know at least one FUDster.

GIF

GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) is one of the three popular file formats used for images used especially within websites. GIF is ideal for simple images with consistent blocks of color - such as logos. The other two main formats for websites include JPEG and PNG.

Htaccess

A shorthand name that stands for “hypertext access”. More relevant to website publishers, htaccess files are important files often used in various folders found within websites.

Htaccess files call for careful management and some knowledge of use. Always create a backup of a htaccess file before changing its contents.

A htaccess file can be especially useful to secure a website or different parts of a website. When enabled online, a htaccess file is shown with a dot in front of its name like .htaccess, and usually is best written all in lower case.

In addition, various codes inserted into htaccess files can enhance a website, help web pages load more quickly, and provide a range of SEO benefits, to help ensure that your web pages don't get misunderstood by search engines.

Moreover, htaccess files that are configured incorrectly can damage a website, or even block a site entirely from search engines. 

HTML

HyperText Markup Language used to create some kinds of web pages.

Joomla!

In this writer's opinion, Joomla! CMS is the most powerful, flexible and amazing web Content Management System (CMS) available! After researching and testing many different web Content Management Systems for over 12 months, we opted to use Joomla! here at InternetTIPS.com and for most new client website designs.

Here's why: combined with a carefully selected mix of various add-ons, Joomla! ticks all of boxes on our demanding "must have" list and provides a rich visitor experience. Yet for inexperienced users, Joomla! CMS can be astonishing tricky to set up and configure properly for both people and search engines.

However, there's good news for non-technical users. Once the key work is done, in combination with the right kind of web design, plus a little training in using Joomla!, the average Internet user can create web pages that are superbly suited for visitors, subscribers, customers, clients and search engines.

JPEG

JPEG (Joint Photographics Expert Group) is an image file format that is ideal to display images on websites that have complex changes of tone and color - such as photos. The other two main web image formats are GIF and PNG.

LDAP

An online protocol that provides a fast, fully indexable, white-pages directory service. LDAP was developed and is freely distributed by the Regents of the University of Michigan.

Marketing (contrast with Advertising)

The business of creating a two-way relationship with potential customers, so that you can address their specific needs and identify how you can help your customers.

MWR

In a web business context, MWR is an acronym for Most Wanted Result. When a new visitor visits your website for the first time, you goal is to have your visitor perform one action above all others. This is your MWR. Some examples of MWRs include: (1) registering on the site, or (2) signing up to receive an email newsletter or website updates, or (3) a product or service sale.

MySQL

A well established, proven, simple, yet powerful open source database management system. MySQL (My SQL) uses the Standard Query Language (SQL). This Joomla-powered website uses MySQL.

MySQLi

An better, faster, more up to date version of MySQL. The trailing "i" stands for "improved".

Nginx or NginX

When investingating website hosting options or various web services that you may want to use on your website, you may come across the name Nginx or sometimes referred to as NginX (prounounced "Engine-Ex"). 

Nginx is a powerful open source a software product that provides usually faster, more stable web hosting and web support services, including better email. 

Usually, the end result of using a properly configured Nginx server hosting is that your website runs faster, therefore your web pages can load faster for your visitors and users.

Open Source

Usually refers to any software that has source code which is made available for use or to modify freely by third parties. Often, the supplier provides a legal agreement to which users must agree to before use.

Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Network

In the computing sense, peer-to-peer refers to the way different computers can connect to each other in a computer network (a collection of connected computers or devices). 

The Internet is currently the largest computer network available. Normally, when a computer web browser (client) displays a website, the browser usually connects to a single web server (node) somewhere in the world that "hosts" the website.

Though to speed up the loading of web pages, there may also be other "hosts" around the world that store a copy the master copy of the website.

The website is then made available to all computers that connect to the nearest server hosting the website. We refer to this method as client-server. 

In contrast, computers that are interconnected in a peer-to-peer way, connect to each other user to user / computer to computer, not through a central server as in the client-server method.

So each single computer within a peer-to-peer network may have multiple connections to the other various computers in the "distributed" P2P network.

This means that in a P2P network, there are always multiple pathways for information or data to travel. If one path temporarily halts or breaks down, other paths are still available.

So arguably, P2P networks are more robust. Cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ether (Etherum network) rely on distributed blockchain-based P2P networks.

For now though, most website hosting still uses client-server approaches.

Pharming

Pharming is a form of phishing (see glossary entry) designed to redirect users to a fake website, from which personal information, such as usernames, passwords, bank or credit card information is then requested. You can learn how to combat pharming in the member area of InternetTIPS.com.

Phisher

A fraudster who practices phishing (see glossary definition).

Phishing

A method used by fraudsters that seeks to steal money from users by tricking people into giving out key personal information online, such as user names, passwords, bank and credit card details.

Phishers can achieve their goal by claiming to send emails from legitimate websites, but which contain web links that ask users to provide personal information, or which direct users to a fake website that, at first glance, may look like a legitimate website.

You can learn how to identify phishing emails from genuine emails within the member area of InternetTIPS.com. See also glossary definition: vishing.

PHP

PHP is a computer programming language often used to create dynamic and interactive web pages. If you opt to use a Joomla-powered website such as we use here at InternetTIPS.com, you don't need to know about the intricacies of PHP: just how to operate your interactive website.

Pinging

When you create new website feed content, naturally you'll want people to know about your new additions. You can inform various web servers that you have updated your feed by pinging them. A ping is simply an electronic request sent to a web server to update its copy of your feed now rather than later.

You can ping manually, or you can use various tools that can ping one or more caching websites (web servers that store content) automatically.

Pinterest

A free to join, social media website source that lets you "pin" an image, animated GIF, or videos, to one or more virtual whiteboards (your Pinterest "Boards"), and share your finds on the Pinterest websites.

You can:

  • Source materials from the web, your own computer desktop or mobile device.
  • Repin images found by other Pinterest members.
  • Choose a featured image for each Board, and make your Pinterest Boards public.
  • Organise your boards, combine boards, add other Pinterest users, and more.
  • If you have a website, add a "Pin it" button to allow your images to be added to Pinterest. However, check copyright restrictions first.

PNG

PNG (Portable Network Graphics) is a popular image file format for websites. PNG was originally developed as a replacement for the GIF format. PNG format is well supported by most current web browsers. PNG is also sometimes used instead of JPEG format.

Protocol

In a computing context, a protocol is a specific standard procedure for regulating and managing the movement of data between computers. For example, to access web pages, your browser follows a HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol); to download and upload files to your website space, you'll most likely use FTP (File Transfer Protocol).

RC

RC [often followed by a single digit number] in a software, computing or web context stands for Release Candidate (RC) and refers to an advanced development version of a software product or web development code. Early development of software products are referred to as "beta copies" or "beta software".

However, once a software product has been developed debugged further, an RC1 (Release Candidate 1) label may be applied to identify that the software product version is considered to be sufficiently stable to release to the its general users.

RSS

An abbreviation for Really Simple Syndication. RSS is a format used to distribute and share content. To read RSS information, you'll need either an RSS Reader or an RSS-compatible web browser like Microsoft IE 7, FireFox, Opera v9x and others.

Satoshi

A Satoshi relates to the Bitcoin cryptocurrency. A Satoshi is the current smallest division of a Bitcoin (BTC) that you can send or receive. A Satoshi is 0.00000001 BTC - or one hundred millionth of a Bitcoin.

Satoshi Nakamoto

The cryptocurrency Bitcoin was created by a single person or a group of people. No one yet knows who was the original creator of Bitcoin.

However, Satoshi Nakamoto is the pseudonym that the creator of Bitcoin chose to use. So we refer to the inventor of Bitcoin as Satoshi Nakamoto.

SHA-256

Is a highly secure, incredibly complex, resource-demanding device,  mechanism, or methodology used in computer software for security purposes, to protect and reveal the true ID or identity or value of something.

In more detail, as a cryptographic algorithm, SHA-256 can be used for a variety of purposes, including in cryptocurrencies and networks like Bitcoin, Ether / Ethereum, and more.

Slug

In relation to a website, especially one created using a web content management system like Joomla or WordPress, a slug relates to the part of a website address (URL) that identifies a specific web site page in a way that human users can read and make sense of.

For example, website editors or publishers can edit the slug of a web page to ensure that the primary keyword or key phrase for the page is embedded into the slug. The end result is a web page address (URL) that is readable and helpful to both people and search engines.

Smishing

Fraud and scams on the web can take many forms. For example, we have phishing and vishing. To that list, we can add Smishing - SMS phishing or SMS fraud.

Smishing works when the fraudsters send text messages to target victims, that appear to come from the victim's bank.

To convince victims that the smishing message is genuine, a fraudster often uses phone number spoofing or trickery.

Key tip: today, a phone number or phone conversation can never be relied on to prove authenticity. Remedy: there are now much better ways prove and ID (Example: Google Authenticator).

Source Code

The original creative coding work authored by a software or web developer. In order to work, source code is compiled or published to create a new file format that is used to distribute the end product.

Spim

Spam that is delivered through instant messaging software or programs. You can learn how to combat and avoid Spim within InternetTIPS.com member area.

UTF-8

A set of characters or "character set" used in computing and on the web. UTF (Unicode Transformation Format) is being used more widely on the web as it encompasses most of the world's writing systems. UTF-8 preserves the full US-ASCII character set range and so has wide compatibility, while usually not affecting other protocol systems that do not use the US-ASCII character set, thereby providing better stability and compatibility.

Vishing

Vishing stands for Vocal Phishing (see glossary definition) , so is a form of phishing. Vishing uses a variety of tactics to persuade people to reveal private information over the phone, or through left voice messages.

A vishing attack can take the form of phone calls, email messages and text messages to landlines and mobile / cell phones.

Vishing prompts may appear to come from legitimate organizations like your bank or credit card company. A variety pressure methods may be used to trick you into carrying out a stated procedure or phoning a number.

Methods used include, alleged credit card suspension, deactivation or termination and to appear authentic, may even warn you not to provide private information.

Web 2.0

A term originally penned by US company, O'Reilly Media, that refers to second-generation Internet-based services that allow people to collaborate and share content, information, ideas, opinions and resources in ways that were not previously possible. Two examples of Web 2.0 technology include Wikis and Blogs (see glossary definitions for details). This website uses Web 2.0 technologies through the use commenting and a discussion forum.

Webinar

A webinar is an easy-to-use, web-based seminar made available from the comfort and convenience of your home or office. Because no physical traveling, building and resources hire is involved, webinar cost is usually considerably less than a conventional seminar.

Just like a conventional seminar, webinars are usually interactive to allow members to participate. Webinars can be ideal for education presentations, tutorials and discussions on focused topics. The webinar presenter provides a live voice element with Internet-based teleconferencing with webinar participants.

Additional webinar options can include simultaneous delivery of supporting text and graphics during the webinar presentation. Using cost effective pricing such as a one-time registration, a webinar provider can maximize benefits to multiple groups of people.

A webinar can also be recorded automatically as an mp3 file and made available for additional users later who were not able "attend" the event.

Wiki

A wiki is a Web 2.0 website technology that enables its users to easily add, edit and remove content, providing an effective collaborative authoring environment. Wikipedia.org is an ideal example of a wiki.